Research and innovation are widely integrated into industrial processes with a long tradition of excellence in many fields of physics and engineering (e.g. robotics), life sciences (e.g. neurosciences), and social sciences and humanities (e.g. high-tech archaeological techniques).
Italian researchers, internationally recognized as highly productive in terms of articles and citations, actively participate and/or lead R&D European networks, such as the CERN physics laboratory, and top-level research infrastructures of transnational interest in sectors such as aerospace, systems biology, earth observation, nanobiotechnology, marine and maritime research, etc.
Italy boasts 8 public-private national competence centres facilitating the adoption of smart technologies.